first_imgThe mobile middleware server handles system integration, security, communications, scalability, and cross-platform support.The mobile client application connects to the middleware server and drives both the user interface and the business logic on the device and supports many operating systems and devices.We believe as more HTML5 and library-enabled code modules are developed in our environment, the need for the MEAP might diminish, although we see it as being absorbed, not eliminated.For more information about our efforts, read IT@Intel’s recent white paper, “Delivering Cloud-based Services in a Bring-Your-Own Environment.” Here at Intel, we are actively integrating employee-owned devices—including smartphones, tablets, and PCs—into our enterprise environment. In addition, we now deliver 80 percent of our newly developed business services through our own enterprise private cloud. We plan to increasingly use a mix of private and public cloud-based services, called hybrid cloud, in implementing solutions over the next few years.In my role as IT Chief Technology Officer, I have observed parallels and interdependencies between our adoption of IT consumerization, which provides employees with a wider range of choices for compute capability, and the advent of cloud computing, which offers businesses additional options for IT services. Intel IT is coordinating our cloud computing efforts with our bring-your-own-device (BYOD) initiatives, to enable us to reap maximum business value from both.We feel that both cloud computing and BYOD are important enablers for our agility and enterprise velocity. But historically, application development has been a rigid process that can slow agility, especially in the areas of larger enterprise systems such as ERP. To increase our ability to develop applications and deliver services quickly—and to a wide range of devices—we are implementing a pace-layered approach utilizing a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) to help us abstract away our slower-to-evolve applications, such as our ERP system, from our quicker-moving capabilities, such as new supply chains to support new business. By being able to connect existing services faster, it also allows us to implement better capabilities such as transforming our shopping carts into purchase orders.This pace-layered approach matches the pace the platform needs to evolve with the pace the business needs to move by abstracting the front-end functionality away from the back-end systems. For example, a service may rely on data stored in our ERP system, but to deliver the service to a tablet, we need to develop a new user interface (UI). By abstracting the front end from the back end, we can quickly develop the UI without having to disturb the underlying data structures and associated business rules.We have also implemented a Mobile Enterprise Application Platform (MEAP), to help us use SOA more efficiently with mobile devices. A MEAP is a comprehensive suite of products and services that can help reduce complexity and connectivity problems associated with deploying an application across multiple devices. In general, a MEAP-based solution consists of two components.last_img read more

first_imgIn Pt1 of this blog post I looked at a SQL Query and data set to run in Hadoop and in Pt2 wrote the Map function to extract the relevant fields from the data set to satisfy the query. At this point however we still have not implemented any of the aggregate functions and still have a large key and value intermediate data set. The only data eliminated so far has been the lines examined where the date was not less than or equal to 11-AUG-98. On the test data set out of the initial 600037902 lines of data we now have 586996074 lines remaining, to complete the query we now need to write the reduce phase. The Reduce method will extend the Reducer class. This needs to accept the intermediate key value pairs output by the mapper and therefore will receive as input the key which is fields 9 and 10  concatenated and the DoubleArrayWritable containing the values. For every key we need to iterate through the values and calcuate the totals required for the SUM(), AVG() and COUNT() functions. Once these have been calculated we can format the output as text to be written to a file that will give us exactly the same result as if the query had been processed by a relational database. This reduce phase will look something as follows by simply adding all of the values in the array for the SUM() functions and then dividing by the COUNT() value to calculate the result of the AVG() functions.nfor (DoubleArrayWritable val : values) {x = (DoubleWritable[]) val.toArray();sum_qty += x[0].get();sum_base_price += x[1].get();sum_discount += x[2].get();count_star += x[3].get();sum_disc_price += x[4].get();sum_charge += x[5].get();        }avg_qty = sum_qty/count_star;avg_price = sum_base_price/count_star;avg_disc = sum_discount/count_star;/* Format and collect the output */Text tpchq1redval = new Text(” “+sum_qty+” “+sum_base_price+” “+sum_disc_price+” “+sum_charge+” “+avg_qty+” “+avg_price+” “+avg_disc+” “+count_star);       context.write(key, tpchq1redval);       }  }nCoupled with the Map phase and a Job Control section (this will be covered in the next post on running the job) this Job is now ready to run. However as we have noted previously just for our 100GB data set the map phase will output over 58 million lines of data which will involve a lot of network traffic and disk writes. We can make this more efficient by writing a Combiner.The Combiner also extends the Reducer and in simple cases but not all (as we will cover in a moment) can be exactly the same as the Reducer. The aim of the combiner is to perform a Reducer type operation on the subset of data produced by each Mapper which will then minimise the amount of data that needs to be transferred throughout the cluster from Map to Reduce. The single most important thing about the Combiner is that there is no certainty that it will run. It is available as an optimization but for a particular Map output it might not run at all and there is no way to force it to run. From a development perspective this has important consequences, you should be able to comment out the line in the Job Control section that calls the Combiner and the result produced by the MapReduce Job stays exactly the same. Additionally the input fields for the Combiner must be exactly the same as expected by the Reducer to operate on the Map output and the Combiner output must also correspond to the input expected by the Reducer.  If you Combiner does not adhere to these restrictions your job may compile and run and you will not receive an error, however if not implemented correctly your results may change on each run from additional factors such as changing the imput block size. Finally the Combiner operation must be both commutative and associative. In other words the Combiner operation must ensure that both changing the order of the operands as well as the grouping of the operations you perform does not change the result. In our example the SUM() function is both commutative and associative, the numbers can be summed in any order and we can perform the sum operation on different groups and the result will always remain the same. AVG() on the other hand is commutative but not associative. We can calculate the average with the input data in any order, however we cannot take an average of smaller groups of values and then take the average of this intermediate data and expect the result to be the same. For this reason the Combiner can perform the SUM() operation but not the AVG() and can look as follows producing the intermediate sum values only for the Reducer.nfor (DoubleArrayWritable val : values) { x = (DoubleWritable[]) val.toArray();sum_qty += x[0].get();sum_base_price += x[1].get();sum_discount += x[2].get();count_star += x[3].get();sum_disc_price += x[4].get();sum_charge += x[5].get();  }outArray[0] = new DoubleWritable(sum_qty); outArray[1] = new DoubleWritable(sum_base_price); outArray[2] = new DoubleWritable(sum_discount); outArray[3] = new DoubleWritable(count_star); outArray[4] = new DoubleWritable(sum_disc_price);outArray[5] = new DoubleWritable(sum_charge);DoubleArrayWritable da = new DoubleArrayWritable();da.set(outArray);context.write(key, da);     }  nAt this stage we have written the Mapper, Reducer and Combiner and in Pt4 will look at adding the Job Control section to produce the completed MapReduce job. We will then consider compiling and running the job and tuning for performance.last_img read more

first_imgBlue Line Contractors Ltd. is a Toronto-area general contractor specializing in commercial and residential renovations that require expertise in structural modifications or complex building changes.Blue Line’s president, Silvio Santos, didn’t have the budget to hire an IT expert. But he knew the way they worked needed an overhaul, as he “would be on the phone from 6 to 10 or 11 every night organizing crews, organizing clients, and scheduling meetings.”The biggest issue for Blue Line was that their old system didn’t support remote access. That meant the team couldn’t collaborate seamlessly between the office and the site. It meant scheduling had to happen over the phone in the evening. And it meant Santos couldn’t take time off. “I used to go 24/7,” Santos says, “And I just don’t have that in me anymore.” Big Changes on a Small BudgetFor Santos, the only choice for the hardware refresh was Intel: “They have the reputation and have been around a long time. I’ve never had issues with Intel processors so I always stick with Intel.”Santos replaced his six-year-old PC fleet with a Lenovo ThinkServer, powered by an Intel Xeon processor E3-1225 v3. Site supervisors received new laptops featuring the Intel Core i5 processor family. All of the hardware was chosen carefully so the team could communicate changes and deal with issues on-the-fly. Schedule or design changes that once threw a wrench in the whole project and considerably slowed down the workday were suddenly no big deal.Santos says that with a new network infrastructure in place, Blue Line has also improved administration with more accurate payroll, and now has the capacity to email invoices and track expenses in real time. He believes these new tools will also help him attract new staff because he can offer more flexible work options. That flexibility extends to Santos himself, too: “I can now take a week off without feeling stressed. It’s a lot easier because I can be in communication and help to address issues quickly.” The New NormalThe day-to-day operations at Blue Line now look completely different. These days, Santos can put a schedule together any time of day and send it out. “If there’s a conflict, I know right away and can modify plans in real time so we don’t have downtime if someone doesn’t show up when they were expected,” he says.Before the refresh, Santos would travel back and forth to client locations to pick up and drop off drawings to quote projects. Today, drawings are emailed to Santos who accesses CAD drawings on his workstation powered by the Intel Xeon processor E5-1630 v3. According to him, “this has been one of the biggest benefits of the new technology.”Reviewing and quoting on large projects used to take two to three weeks to get drawings in for revisions and verification. Add another two weeks for production and six weeks later, they’d be starting installation.“Now, we can get shop drawings for urgent jobs in a day or two, if not same day,” says Santos. “The whole process has streamlined from a month to a day.”Santos estimates his business has grown 30 percent since they started making the investment in new technologies, and he’s projecting a further 30 to 40 percent increase in sales this year — all thanks to the right hardware.Learn more about Blue Line’s refresh process and how the right hardware upgrades could boost your small business. Have you upgraded recently? Comment below, and tell us what’s helped your small business compete! And join us on TwitterOpens in a new window!last_img read more

first_imgChances are, you already use the cloud in some area of your life. Whether it’s storing photos from your phone or listening to streaming music, cloud has quickly become essential to modern life. Yet many small businesses are still using antiquated processes to store and share their files. As digital data grows, those systems are no longer adequate.Benefits of cloud migration can be significant, including lower office expenses and increased efficiency, but there’s a lot of confusion around getting started. Check out the info below to build a strong foundation for your small business cloud.What Is Cloud Storage?The cloud is a network of servers that handles data remotely. A cloud network can store data — like all those images we upload to Facebook — or serve up applications for streaming services like Spotify.The most immediate benefit of using the cloud is easy access. Salesforce sums it up nicely: “Where in the past, people would run applications or programs from software downloaded on a physical computer or server in their building, cloud computing allows people to access the same kinds of applications through the internet.”How Can the Cloud Help Small Business?Storing data in the cloud gives small business employees the ability to work from anywhere. You might be giving a PowerPoint presentation to a potential client downtown while an analyst compiles a weekly report from home and someone in the office enters data. Whatever the scenario, you’re all accessing the same data in real time. The cloud boosts efficiency by keeping all your files in the same place and accessible from anywhere.Not only is that data readily available, but working in the cloud also reduces the need for expensive IT hardware and on-site software. Employees just need a computer to access a variety of services such as video conferencing, mobile and internet convergence, data sharing, integrated messaging, and software that was previously only available with the purchase of a license. Cloud-based software is also constantly updated, so you’re always using the latest version.Another significant benefit of moving small business services to the cloud is the ability to scale. When you need more processing power or data storage, it’s easy to expand without changing hardware — and without the unproductive downtime that usually comes with an IT upgrade.Cloud Options and Where to StartCloud computing has reached a level of maturity that makes it accessible to small business, but the host of options can be overwhelming. Start by researching some of the best cloud services for small businesses. Most fall into categories, so you can choose based on your needs:Communications and commerce-based toolsSecurity and network monitoringFinancial toolsIt’s important to vet cloud service providers before adopting one, just as you would any other service provider. Consider a few key elements when looking for an online storage provider, including proven infrastructure and an active, established user base.When assessing a provider, take a look at the company’s security measures as well. Many small business owners report being concerned about the security of remotely accessed cloud-based systems. However, broad scrutiny, higher standards, and ongoing audits result in a more secure cloud overall. Small businesses can do their part to maintain data security by ensuring tight permissions, and by identifying risks in the office.You can find more tips on cloud adoption — as well as resources specific to small business — by visiting our Small Business Hub. And to join the conversation, be sure to follow @IntelSmallBiz on Twitter.last_img read more

first_imgFrom May 16-18, SAP SAPPHIRE NOW and the ASUG (Americas’ SAP Users’ Group) overtook Orlando with one of the largest global tech conferences of the year. SAPPHIRE NOW is so large because SAP technologies—particularly the SAP HANA in-memory database—are so prominent in global business. SAP is at the center of an ecosystem of technology partners, and has worked closely with Intel for nearly 30 years, particularly in the joint engineering that developed – and continues to extend – the SAP HANA* platform. Intel also had a large presence at the show and we had our own announcements and demos to share in support of the long, rich relationship between Intel and SAP.As I wandered the show floor and marveled at all the technological wonders on display—an eye-popping tableau of robots, drones, and even a virtual wind farm—I had to remind myself that behind all these breakthroughs was SAP, a company not so long ago known mostly for vast and imposing enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. Today, SAP straddles the cutting edge of technology, a leader in bringing artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), and machine learning to business.In fact, the longest lines in Orlando (and that’s saying something) were to get into the SAP Leonardo* exhibit. Leonardo is the name given to SAP’s digital innovation system, and is made up of SAP’s technologies for artificial intelligence, machine learning, big data, analytics, IoT and blockchain, all of which can be embedded in applications to create new data-driven intelligent systems. If you wonder how these new technologies will apply to your business, just keep your eye on SAP. By transforming itself into a pioneer of applying these advanced technologies to business, SAP continues to position itself as a leader in digital transformation.Intel Executives Star in SAP SAPPHIRE KeynotesDuring Tuesday’s keynote address,Opens in a new window Diane Bryant, president of Intel’s Data Center Group, walked on stage to join Bernd Leukert, a member of SAP’s Executive Board for Products and Innovation. Diane announced the Intel® Xeon® Processor Scalable familyOpens in a new window, a new foundation for secure and agile multi-cloud data centers. The new scalable processors, which will be available in mid-2017, are optimized for SAP HANA and have been benchmarked with performance gains up to 1.59x higher over the previous generation Intel processor family when running in-memory SAP HANA workloads. Additionally, Diane announced that SAP HANA is now certified to support up to six times more memory on the new Intel Xeon processor scalable for four- or eight-socket configurations than the typical four-year-old system in general use today. This makes the new Intel platform ideal to meet the increasingly complex demands of big-data, in-memory workloads in modern data centers.Intel’s Diane Bryant onstage at SAP SAPPHIRE with SAP’s Bernd Leukert, discussing the new Intel Xeon Processor Scalable family.But wait, there’s more. Diane also announced a new generation of Intel dual in-line memory modules (DIMMs) based on 3D XPoint™ technologyOpens in a new window to help overcome the traditional I/O bottlenecks that slow data flows and limit application capacity and performance. Historically, memory has been small, volatile and expensive, but Intel’s new DIMMs with persistent memory, due to launch next year, are about to change that. Intel persistent memory shifts the memory paradigm by putting more data on nonvolatile media closer to the processor, and in a more affordable manner. Not only does larger memory promise faster processing and therefore faster results, it also reduces downtime during outages and restarts because data can persist in-memory.Lisa Davis, Intel’s VP of IT Transformation, presented the first public demo of the new DIMM technology. Watch my Periscope videoOpens in a new window of Lisa’s presentation, showing a prerelease version of an Intel Xeon Scalable platform operating with 192 gigabytes of DRAM and 1.5 terabytes of Intel persistent memory, running a development version of SAP HANA. On a dashboard above the stage, we watched as the platform ran several thousand simultaneous SAP HANA user sessions, displaying how the system used DRAM for operations like inserts and deletes, which require high read/write access, and used Intel persistent memory for capacity and persistence of the main memory fragment. By targeting the right kind of memory to the right kind of operation, Lisa’s demo showed how the new DIMM system is able to handle large data capacity while maintaining high overall performance. This opens the prospect of entire databases remaining permanently in memory for super low latency computing.In-Booth Demos Showcase IoTIntel also hosted a number of demos at its SAP SAPPHIRE booth. Watch my PeriscopeOpens in a new window of an emergency response demonstration using drones, Intel® RealSense™ imaging technologies and SAP Leonardo Edge consoles. The demo shows how imaging technologies can track human activity to provide surveillance and coordinate rescue in disaster scenarios. Read more about the Intel, SAP Leonardo and Wind River Helix* IoT edge management solution hereOpens in a new window.We also demoed SAP HANA Express* Predictive Maintenance and Service (PdMS) on Intel® NUC, which showed how the small form factor NUC computer is able to provide predictive maintenance in an IoT network via VMware and 3DXpoint technologies.Intel also published a use case in conjunction with SAP SAPPHIRE. Read SAP and Intel Co-innovation Enables Global Cloud Migration to the SAP HANA PlatformOpens in a new window to learn how SAP was able to increase workload density and reduce operational costs by porting all its SAP Business ByDesign* customers to a SAP HANA platform powered by the Intel® Xeon® processor E7 v4 family. Remarkably, the migration was implemented with almost no impact on customers’ abilities to operate their businesses without interruption, other than the brief scheduled downtime during non-business weekend hours.Connect with me at @TimIntelOpens in a new window and #TechTim for the latest news on Intel and SAP.last_img read more

first_imgSocial and behavioral research is finally getting some of the high-level attention it has sought for years at the National Institutes of Health. Yesterday NIH Director Francis Collins announced that $10 million in recovery money will go to support the launch of the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network – they’re calling it OppNet, an initiative to support and coordinate basic behavioral research throughout NIH. The American Psychological Society  Association for Psychological Science (APS), which has been working with Congress for about a decade to get more behavioral science into NIH, is ecstatic about OppNet. APS Executive Director Alan Kraut says NIH’s Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, which isn’t a funding agency, “has had less and less impact over time.” OppNet, to be led by Jeremy Berg, director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and National Institute on Aging Director Richard Hodes, “is much higher visibility.” It will be getting all institute directors together on a regular basis to talk about behavioral research needs. Although basic behavioral research already gets about $1 billion a year from NIH, Kraut says OppNet will funnel money into cross-disciplinary areas that have hitherto been ignored. NIH institutes and centers have committed to putting another $110 million into the initiative over the next 5 years.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)last_img read more

first_imgWave and ocean power got a hearing at a subcommittee of the House of Representatives Science and Technology Committee today.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)India has announced it will cut its carbon emissions intensity of its economy by as much as a quarter from 2005 levels by 2020. Starting with this weekend’s games, players in the National Football League who exhibit symptoms of a concussion won’t be allowed to return to the game. The rule change is the latest in a series of measures taken by the league to address concerns about lasting effects of head injuries.The Massachusetts Institute of Technology will be hosting a panel discussion on the Augustine Report on human spaceflight on 11 December.The Senate Environment and Public Works Committee passed nine bills related to conservation today; the timetable for a vote by the full Senate is unclear. Nine democrats have given President Barack Obama a list of demands they want met in Copenhagen at the climate talks: Key among them is a call for verifiable targets from all major economies. The University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom has announced that Muir Russell, a former official of the University of Glasgow, will lead the official investigation into Climategate.(Illustration Credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/doegox/ / CC BY-SA 2.0 )last_img read more

first_imgFor the fifth consecutive year, the number of international students applying to U.S. graduate schools has risen. Fueled by a boom in the number of Chinese students earning undergraduate degrees, the trend finally erases a steep drop in 2003-05 that’s generally attributed to tightened visa procedures following the September 2001 terrorist attacks. A new report out today from the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) documents a 7% jump in applicants for the 2010-11 academic year. Students from China led the way, with a 19% jump over 2009 that continues several years of double-digit increases. Applications from Indian students dropped 2%, after a 12% decline in 2009, while the number of applications from South Korean students remained flat, after a 9% drop in 2009. Those three countries are the source of half of all international applicants to U.S. graduate schools. The Middle East and Turkey added to its string of double-digit increases with a 18% boost in 2010, although that region generates only about 6% of all foreign applicants. “China simply cannot keep up with demand,” says Nathan Bell, the council’s research director. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Bell manages the survey of some 505 member institutions (the response rate was 48%). “Other countries are also seeing the impact of China’s tremendous growth in undergraduate education.” The survey, begun in 2004, paints a three-step picture of the graduate enrollment process. Part I covers applications, part II tracks admissions, and part III records who actually shows up for classes. Typically, the change in actual enrollment is roughly half the magnitude of annual changes in applications. But Bell says that he’s reluctant to make any predictions this year because of the uncertainty about the financial aid packages that institutions will be able to offer. The number of applicants increased for all fields of study, led by an 11% jump in psychology and the social sciences. The life sciences trailed the field, with a 3% bump. The 6-year trend varies greatly across the 75 institutions that CGS has tracked since 2004, however. Slightly more than half enjoyed, on average, a 35% increase in applications over the period. The rest suffered an average decline of 25% in applications. In general, large institutions saw a bigger bump in applications this year than did small institutions.last_img read more

first_imgNational Institutes of Health Director Francis Collins today responded to a flap about a psychiatrist who failed to report drug-company income and avoided his university’s punishment by moving to a new university. The incident, Collins says, has exposed gaps in the federal conflict of interest (COI) regulation that NIH hopes to address. Speaking to his advisory board, Collins discussed a story this week in The Chronicle of Higher Education about former Emory University faculty member Charles Nemeroff. After a Senate probe found that Nemeroff failed to report at least $1.2 million in outside income, Emory banned Nemeroff from receiving NIH grants for 2 years in December 2008. But as The Chronicle reported, he was eligible to apply for grants a year later when he took a job at the University of Miami. “The sanctions applied to the institutions and not to the investigator,” Collins explained. The “silver lining to this story,” Collins said, is that “it brought to light NIH grants policies that may need to be addressed.” He said that as part of a revision of the COI rules, NIH is looking into “how can we improve NIH’s ability to make sanctions or penalties continue to apply to individual researchers even if they move to another NIH-funded institution.” NIH is also reviewing its policies for participating in peer review and advisory committees “in circumstances of this sort,” he said. As The Chronicle reported, Nemeroff is serving on two NIH peer-review panels. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)last_img read more

first_imgThe city of Nineveh in Iraq was one of the most important cultural centers of the ancient world, but in the past 5 years urban sprawl has gobbled the core of its remains. A project launched on 15 March aims to keep a watchful eye on Nineveh, along with hundreds of other heritage sites in developing nations that are endangered by urbanization, looting, war, and other threats. The project, called the Global Heritage Network (GHN), consists of a database and a Web site that assembles Google Earth satellite imaging, maps, photos, videos, and reports from a network of researchers, locals, and government officials. It also ranks each site’s status, from black (destroyed) through green (stable). “It’s an early-warning system so that threats can be monitored in the most important and endangered heritage sites in developing countries,” says Jeff Morgan, executive director of the Global Heritage Fund, the California-based nonprofit behind the project. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Last fall, the group issued a report estimating that 200 of the 500 or so cultural heritage sites located in the developing world are in danger of being lost-sites such as Guatemala’s Mirador Basin, where looting and fires threaten four of the oldest Maya cities, and India’s Maluti temples, carved terra cotta structures that are slowly succumbing to poor drainage and vegetation overgrowth. All 500 sites are designated either as UNESCO World Heritage sites or as national treasures in their home countries, and all are included in the GHN database, Morgan says. His group has so far participated in planning and conservation efforts at 18 sites, working with, for instance, archaeologists, historians, structural engineers, and local residents and governments, Morgan says a key part of his group’s mission is to make sure local people have a say in what happens at the sites in their backyards . Many of the sites are so poorly documented that even basic maps available through the database will represent progress, he says. As new threats come to light, the plan is to alert the appropriate governments and international groups like UNESCO and perhaps initiate conservation planning. “GHN helps us prioritize and focus expert teams, communities, and stakeholders, as well as funders, to help save these sites,” Morgan says. Armchair tourists will enjoy exploring the project Web site. It offers a good deal of information for the 18 sites the group has worked on, although information about the rest remains sparse for now.last_img read more

first_imgThe Supreme Court today rejected a request to ban U.S.-funded research on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The decision brings to an end a long legal battle that has cast a shadow over hESC studies for over 3 years. Two scientists who study adult stem cells filed their suit, Sherley v. Sebelius, in August 2009. They argued that new National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines lifting restrictions on hESC research violated a law banning federal funds for research that destroys embryos. A year later, the plaintiffs won a preliminary injunction that briefly shut down NIH-funded hESC research until an appeals court stayed the injunction. The appeals court and a trial court later ruled in favor of the government. In October, the plaintiffs appealed to the Supreme Court. But today, the court “denied certiorari,” meaning it rejected their petition. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Amy Comstock Rick, president of the Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research in Washington, D.C., which supports hESC research, called the decision “a victory for scientists, patients, and the entire biomedical research community. Science can now continue to move forward, knowing the threat to promising research and funding has been eliminated.” *Correction 1:15 p.m., 7 January: A change clarifies that the suit argued against new NIH guidelines that lifted restrictions on hESC research.last_img read more

first_imgChris Darimont discusses the impact of humans’ unique predatory behavior on the planet, and Catherine Matacic talks with Sarah Crespi about whistled languages, Neolithic massacres, and too many gas giants. Hosted by Sarah Crespi.last_img

first_imgA pair of old fishing buddies is now steering the ship at the Scripps Research Institute, one of the world’s largest private basic biomedical research institutes. Today, Steve Kay, formerly the dean of the college of arts and sciences at the University of Southern California (USC) in Los Angeles was announced as Scripps’s president, whereas Peter Schultz, currently a Scripps chemist and director of the California Institute for Biomedical Research (Calibr) in San Diego, was named CEO. Kay will be in charge of day-to-day operations, whereas Schultz will lay out Scripps’s long-term strategic plan.The announcement likely brings to a close a contentious chapter at Scripps, which has campuses in San Diego, California, and Jupiter, Florida. Just over a year ago, Scripps faculty led a revolt against the institute’s former leadership amid financial troubles and merger discussions with USC. The appointments also portend a new push aimed at marrying the institute’s historical strength in basic biomedical research with translational medicine designed to turn research leads into novel treatments.“It’s a very exciting move,” says Peter Kim, formerly the head of the Merck Research Laboratories and now a biochemist at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. In addition to running Calibr, Schultz previously led the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF), and has been a founder of eight startups involved in using robotics and other high throughput technologies to advance biomedicine and materials science. Before joining USC, Kay also worked with Schultz at Scripps and GNF. Together the pair has raised well over $1 billion in backing from pharma companies, foundations, and private donations in their recent positions.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Scripps is “very fortunate” to have landed both to share the top duties at the institute, Kim says. Phil Baran, a Scripps chemist and member of the search committee that selected Kay and Schultz, agrees. “I think everyone here will be relieved that we have icons charting the course of the ship, which will let us go back to doing science,” he says.The ship’s previous course got a bit turbulent. Last July, Scripps’s board of trustees called off merger talks with USC after the Scripps faculty revolted. The potential marriage was offered as a way out of the red for Scripps, which had seen a sharp drop in research funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). USC at the time was flush, in the midst of a $6 billion capital campaign. The university also has a medical school, which meant potentially easier access to clinical research for Scripps’s stable of basic biomedical researchers. But Scripps faculty feared loss of autonomy and objected loudly to news of the merger talks. Ultimately, Scripps’s then-President and CEO Michael Marletta resigned, cell biologist Jim Paulson was named as an interim president and CEO, and a search committee was formed to find a new direction.An emphasis on translationThe centerpiece of this new direction, say Kay and Schultz, will be a long-term push into translational research. Like most academic institutions, today Scripps sticks mainly to basic research, discovering the molecular underpinnings of health and disease. Pharmaceutical companies, by contrast, focus most of their efforts at the other end of the drug development pipeline, moving potential drug compounds through human clinical trials into the market. The space between basic science and drug approval—the translational piece—has come to be known as the “valley of death,” because many promising findings never make it to market. Translational researchers must take promising early-stage compounds and go through a host of refinements to improve measures such as how long compounds last in the body and how well they move through the bloodstream, find their targets, and minimize their toxicity.Kay and Schultz say they plan to form alliances with Calibr and other institutes to ease the path for Scripps faculty to do much of this translational research in house. By doing so, they say, this will ensure that more compounds make it into human trials, bring extra licensing royalties into the institute, and, ultimately, improve the lives of patients. “If we are successful, not only are we making new medicines that can help people, we are potentially creating additional financial resources [for Scripps],” Schultz says.Scripps already has a strong track record for getting medicines into the clinic. According to the institute, eight compounds originally discovered at Scripps are now on the market, while another 30 are in various stages of clinical development. Those were developed, in part, as a byproduct of previous alliances in which pharmaceutical companies payed for rights to develop would-be drugs discovered at Scripps, as well as through the more traditional approach of licensing early-stage compounds to startup companies that then raise money to develop them further.That model, particularly finding institutional backing from pharma companies, “probably no longer works,” Schultz says. Today, large pharma companies are more averse to risking money on unproven therapies, and thus more apt to sit on the sidelines until compounds advance at least until early-stage human clinical trials. That forces biotech companies that license compounds to do much of the translational research themselves, something they aren’t always best suited to do.To make matters worse, when research institutes license their promising compounds very early in development, the terms of such deals often aren’t great for the basic researchers. The institute doesn’t get much money, and researchers lose control over what happens to their compounds, says Patrick Griffin, who runs a translational research center at Scripps in Florida. Many compounds then go on to fail—not because they aren’t effective, Griffin adds, but because companies decide to move in a different business direction. “If you can move a [would-be drug] along in a nonprofit, you can nurture it so it has a better opportunity to advance,” Griffin says. “Fewer will fail, and you will have more shots on goal,” of making it to market, he says.Those extra shots are critical, Griffin and others say, because 95% of all would-be drugs fail during development. When costs of the failures are added in, the price of bringing a new drug to market is well over $1 billion. That has not only caused large pharma companies to back away from early-stage drug discovery, but it has forced them to pursue primarily large-market blockbuster drugs for common conditions such as heart disease and cancer, while avoiding medicines for rare diseases.As a nonprofit focused on translational research, Calibr has already begun to change this arrangement in a small way. Today, the institute, which opened in 2012, has a staff of only about 110 people and an annual budget of some $25 million. But thanks to early progress on would-be drugs for neglected diseases, Calibr has already attracted funding from nonprofit foundations such as the Wellcome Trust, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. Schultz says the institute expects to put four to six drugs into the clinic over the next year or two.Cutting costsSchultz and Kay plan to take more immediate actions to shore up Scripps’s finances. According to a July report by Fitch, a bond rating agency, Scripps’ finances are “stable.” But the institute has operated in the red for years, and has been forced to cover its deficit by drawing down its endowment, which shrunk from $430 million in fiscal year 2012 to $397 million in fiscal year 2014.One move that could save $12 million annually would be to replace nearly 37,000 square meters of leased lab space with two newly constructed buildings owned by Scripps. Schultz and Kay say they continue to explore an existing plan to raise more than $100 million to pay for the buildings. “That would have a big impact pretty quick,” Griffin says. But ultimately, he says, Scripps’s stability will be decided on how effective Schultz and Kay are in hooking together formerly disparate parts of the drug development pipeline, and how many would-be drugs the fishing buddies manage to snare in their net.*Correction, 18 September, 3:07 p.m.: This story incorrectly identified Scripps as the world’s largest basic biomedical research institute. It is among the world’s largest private biomedical research institutes.last_img read more

first_imgIf you can tell French Chardonnay from Italian, you might have an annoying insect to thank. Microbes that live on grape plants—specifically, yeast of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae—vary from place to place in ways that cause subtle but detectable differences in the taste of the resulting wine. Now, researchers have found that different strains of the yeast mingle and mate like crazy inside the guts of hibernating wasps. The findings suggest that wasps might help to foster yeast biodiversity, with important implications for ecology and industry.S. cerevisiae is one of the most widely cultivated fungi in the world—used not only in winemaking, but also in baking, brewing, and lab experiments. But researchers have known little about its ecology in the wild, where it grows on ripe fruit.Thanks to the new results, reported online today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they know a lot more. “It’s the first evidence that shows that in the gut environment, S. cerevisiae can [produce spores], germinate, and mate,” says Duccio Cavalieri, a biologist at the University of Florence in Italy, who led the project.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)When Cavalieri and his collaborators first reported finding yeast in wasp intestines in a 2012 paper, they speculated that wasps feeding on yeasty grapes might transfer the yeast from fruit to fruit during warmer months and provide a safe place for it to wait out the winter. But they didn’t know what happened to the yeast during its months inside a hibernating wasp.To find out, they fed European paper wasps five different strains of S. cerevisiae each. After letting the wasps hibernate for as long as 4 months, they compared the gut-dwelling yeast with colonies that came from the same starting strains but were grown in the lab instead. The different S. cerevisiae strains from the wasps had bred with each other just as much as they had in the controls. In addition, some of the wasps’ S. cerevisiae strains had mated with S. paradoxus, a related species of wild yeast that doesn’t normally breed with S. cerevisiae in the wild.Together, the results show that the wasp’s belly is more than just a holding chamber for yeast. The yeast are “living, dying, battling for resources, all within this wasp,” says Anne Madden, a microbiologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and North Carolina State University in Raleigh, who was not involved in the study.The fact that S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus were able to mate inside the wasps means the gut environment could propagate hybrid strains that wouldn’t otherwise occur, the researchers argue.The findings suggest that wasps may be much more important than usually thought, Madden says. “What’s often perceived as a pest species by humans can have incredible relevance, not only to our understanding of greater ecology, but in terms of having real commercial and industrial value,” she says. “What we’re beginning to learn is that there’s wide unexplored world of microbes and bugs—insects, spiders, mites.”For instance, beers and wines have regional flavor difference influenced in part by their microbes, including yeasts. “Maintaining this uniqueness requires maintaining the uniqueness of the microbial communities,” says Cavalieri, who comes from a long line of vintners. Wasps could help. But he also thinks there’s a larger ecological context for the work.“We normally wage chemical warfare against insects all over the place,” he says. “What our findings are basically saying is that if we continue killing the wasps, we lose a fundamental part of the ecological cycle.” Cavalieri’s team is investigating whether similar processes occur in other insects, such as ants.Not everyone is convinced. Matthew Goddard, a biologist at the University of Lincoln in the United Kingdom, and the University of Auckland in New Zealand, notes that the team didn’t directly demonstrate that the yeast reproduced within the gut. But Cavalieri says his group’s microbiology techniques make it extremely unlikely that the yeast formed cross-species hybrids after they were removed from the wasps.last_img read more

first_img ROME—On Saturday, Massimo Inguscio will take over from engineer Luigi Nicolais as president of Italy’s largest research organization, the National Research Council (CNR). Inguscio, a well-known optical physicist at the University of Florence, has experience leading smaller research bodies, most recently Italy’s National Institute of Metrological Research, but heading the multidisciplinary CNR will be a step up. He will have an annual budget of about €1 billion and more than 8000 employees in his charge, many of whom are unhappy at being continually handed short-term contracts.“Inguscio is an excellent scientist and also a very good manager,” says Giovanni Bignami, a former president of Italy’s National Institute for Astrophysics here. “But he will have his hands full dealing with personnel. He will have to talk to the unions while also making himself heard in the ministry.”ScienceInsider talked to Inguscio on Tuesday, a day after research minister Stefania Giannini had tapped him for the new job. Questions and answers have been edited for clarity and brevity.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Massimo Inguscio says research managers should be free to hire the best people. Q: Italy spends only about 1.25% of its gross domestic product on research. Does CNR struggle for funding?A: Almost all of the CNR’s budget is used to pay salaries and basic expenses such as electricity, which means there are virtually zero funds for research. Twenty years ago there was money to upgrade existing facilities or to buy new equipment, be it a new magnet or modern tools for nanotechnology. But now we can’t do that.Q: The government’s 2016 budget contains €100 million for about 850 new university researchers. Is that a good sign?A: It is a welcome, if small, reversal compared to the general trend of decreasing finances. But these resources must be used wisely. In Italy there is no multiyear strategy. Hirings can be blocked for many years and then unfrozen suddenly. That leads to people being recruited just because they are on a temporary contract, and not necessarily because they are the best person for the job. In fact, current employment law stipulates that new jobs must be filled by people who have previously won a place on a public waiting list, even if they did so 10 years ago. That has nothing to do with research.Q: What do you intend to do about that?A: Research managers must be free to choose people on the basis of merit. The presidents of research institutions are asking the government to start up a process of tenure track, as happens in other countries. New recruits would go through a trial period, and if they prove themselves good enough [they] would then gain a permanent position. We need to have a serious hiring policy that doesn’t rely on personal contacts.Q: Many Italian scientists work abroad. Is that a serious problem?A: I am not worried about the brain drain, it is normal that people go overseas to work. The problem is that researchers don’t come to Italy. The movement is only in one direction.Q: Can the flow be reversed?A: Three years ago I became director of the CNR’s physical sciences department. While there, new efforts were made to attract foreign winners of Consolidator Grants awarded by the European Research Council, but of about 10 people that we hoped to recruit only one came. Someone comes not only because there is a place and a wage but also because they can hire postdocs and get projects up and running. I hope that the government can restart Italian research on the basis of excellence and meritocracy.Q: There have been protests against the second round of a nationwide research assessment program known as the VQR. Some scientists say the procedures penalize those, for example, who favor teaching over research. How do you view this issue? A: I think the VQR is of fundamental importance. It allows us to allocate funds to places that merit them and therefore to hire good people. It is a new methodology and there are bound to be errors, but some people are trying to sabotage the system by withholding their research papers from the evaluation. That doesn’t seem a very intelligent thing to do because they will be deemed to be inactive and so reduce funding for their institutes. If the system has problems, we have to try and fix it.center_img Vittorio Tulli last_img read more